Lifetime use of pharmaceuticals (%) a
|Tranquillisers or sedatives without prescription||6||1||17|
|Painkillers to get high||4||1||12|
Tranquillisers or sedatives
Use of tranquillisers or sedatives without prescription was most prevalent in Poland (17 %) and the Czech Republic (16 %) (Table 9). The lowest levels of non-prescription use of tranquillisers or sedatives (1-2 %) were reported by students from Denmark, the Faroes, Moldova, Romania and Ukraine. On average, slightly more girls than boys reported use of tranquillisers or sedatives without prescription (8 % versus 5 %). In Belgium (Flanders), the Czech Republic, Estonia, France, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia, more girls than boys have used non-prescription tranquillisers or sedatives (difference: 5 percentage points or more).
On average, use of painkillers to get high was reported by 4 % of the students. The countries with the highest prevalence rates are Romania (12 %) and Croatia (10 %). Like tranquillisers, slightly more girls (4 %) than boys (3 %) reported the use of painkillers. Larger gender differences (5 percentage points or more) were found in Belgium (Flanders), Croatia, Hungary, Poland and Romania.
Few students in the ESPAD countries reported experience with anabolic steroids (ESPAD average: 1 %). The highest proportions were found in Bulgaria (4 %), Cyprus, the Czech Republic and Poland (3 % each). Noticeable gender differences are seen in Bulgaria (7 % for boys and 2 % for girls) and Cyprus (5 % versus 1 %).
Table 9. Pharmaceuticals: lifetime prevalence of the use of painkillers to get high, tranquillisers or sedatives without prescription and anabolic steroids (percentage)Download XLS
b Data for tranquillisers only.
c Official name former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.